A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by natural or legal persons that operates independently from any form of government. The term originated from the United Nations (UN), and is normally used to refer to organizations that are not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business. In the cases in which NGOs are funded totally or partially by governments, the NGO maintains its non-governmental status by excluding government representatives from membership in the organization. The term is usually applied only to organizations that pursue wider social aims that have political aspects, but are not openly political organizations such as political parties.
The number of internationally operating NGOs is estimated at 40,000. National numbers are even higher: Russia has 277,000 NGOs; India is estimated to have around 3.3 million NGOs in year 2009, which is one NGO per less than 400 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centers in India.
Some find it helpful to classify NGOs by orientation and/or level of co-operation.
NGO type by orientation
- Charitable orientation
- Service orientation
- Professional association
- Empowering orientation;
NGO type by level of co-operation
- Community-based organization
- City-wide organization
- National NGO
- International NGO
Apart from "NGO", there are many alternative or overlapping terms in use, including: third sector organization (TSO), non-profit organization (NPO), voluntary organization (VO), civil society organization (CSO), grassroots organization (GO), social movement organization (SMO), private voluntary organization (PVO), self-help organization (SHO) and non-state actors (NSAs).
NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. Examples include improving the state of the natural environment, encouraging the observance of human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.
Even though NGOs might have common goals relating to development or environment issues, interests and perspectives are diverse. A distinction can be made between the interests and goals among those NGOs located in industrialized countries—often referred to as the states of the North—and NGOs from nations located in developing countries—referred to as states of the South. There is sometimes tension between them. Southern states blame the developed nations for over-consumption and pollution resulting from industrialization, and for sustaining inequalities in the international economic system
NGOs were intended to fill a gap in government services, but in countries like India, NGOs are gaining a powerful stronghold in decision making.
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least 1839. It has been estimated that by 1914, there were 1083 NGOs. International NGOs were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the World Disarmament Conference. However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states—see Consultative Status. The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on February 27, 1950: it is defined as "any international organization that is not founded by an international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" insustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27 of Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations. It has been observed that the number of INGO founded or dissolved matches the general "state of the world", rising in periods of growth and declining in
The scale and variety of activities in which NGOs participate has grown rapidly since the 1980s, witnessing particular expansion in the 1990s. This has presented NGOs with need to balance the pressures of centralisation and decentralisation. By centralising NGOs, particularly those that operate at an international level, they can assign a common theme or set of goals. Conversely it is also advantageous to decentralise as this increases the chances of an NGO behaving flexibly and effectively to localised issues.
Inflation happens to be a determinant in the functioning of any economy. India is a country with a mixed economy model that comprises both capitalism and socialism hence the challenges faced are vital for its growth model. The recent rise in inflation has been found to consist of several political and economic crisis under the prime minister ship of Dr Manmohan Singh.
Contesting on the challenges faced, several economists have questioned the method of measuring inflation to be faulty. The present day process being used in India has been The Wholesale Price Index while several other developed countries adopt the Consumer price index to calculate inflation.
There are two basis system of measuring inflation present today. While India adopts the prior method which is considered to be lesser advanced. The demographics and structures of India don't permit it to adopt the second basis system of measuring inflation.
Wholesale Price Index
It first came in 1902 and being replaced by 1970 with the Consumer Price Index globally. Around 435 commodities data are being tracked through it that captures the movement of commodities hence measuring the inflation for the country. The drawback of the system that widely challenges is the ignorance of the service sector. But when compared with the Consumer Price Index it covers a more wide range of commodities. The problem that occurs with Wholesale Price Index, it occurs on a weekly basis. The prices of the different commodities may rise at different rates. Hence if the prices of high weighted index cost less while for lower weighted index cost more, the inflation in the economy would be reflected as low. The rational consumer happens to pay more for commodities like vegetable( weight less but high cost) Factors
There are several factors which help to determine the inflationary impact in the country and further help in making a comparative analysis of the policies for the same.The major determinant of the inflation in regard to the employment generation and growth is depicted by the Phillips curve.
It basically occurs in a situation when the aggregate demand in the economy has exceeded the aggregate supply. It could further be described as a situation where too much money chases just few goods. A country has a capacity of producing just 550 units of a commodity but the actual demand in the country happens to be 700 units. Hence, as a result of which due to scarcity in demand the prices of the commodity rises. This has generally been seen in India in context with the agrarian society where due to droughts and floods or inadequate methods for the storage of grains leads to lesser or deteriorated output hence increasing the prices for the commodities as the demand remains the same.
The supply side inflation happens to be a key ingredient for the rising inflation in India. The agricultural scarcity or the damage in transit creates a scarcity causing high inflationary pressures. Similarly, the high cost of labor eventually increases the production cost and leads to a high price for the commodity.The energies issues regarding the cost of production often increases the value of the final output produced. These supply driven factors have basically had a fiscal tool for regulation and moderation. Further, the global level impacts of price rise often impacts inflation from the supply side of the economy.
The underdeveloped economies like India have generally a lesser developed financial market which creates a weak bonding between the interest rates and the aggregate demand. This accounts for the real money gap that could be determined as the potential determinant for the price rise and inflation in India. There happens to be a gap in India for both the output and the real money gap. The supply of money grows rapidly while the supply of goods takes due time which causes increased inflation. Similarly Hoarding has been a problem of major concern in India where onions prices have shot high in the sky. There are several other stances for the gold and silver commodities and their price hike.
The exchange rate determination happens to be an important component for the inflationary pressures that arises in the India. The liberal economic perspectives in India affect the domestic markets. As the prices in United States Of America rises it impacts India where the commodities are now imported at a higher price impacting the price rise. Hence, the nominal exchange rate and the import inflation are measures that depict the competitiveness and challenges for the economy.
Due to sharp rise in the prices of meat, vegetables, milk and pulses, inflation has reached 7.23% in April 2012.The value was 9.74% in April 2011
Today one of the major drawbacks of our country is Inflation.
For that India fire welfare foundation is proudly announcing “Rahat”
In this scheme our daily needs food items like Flour, Rice and Sugar will be available
For middle class & lower class citizen of our country in half of the rate from the market.
we will open 50 centers Delhi and NCR from where consumers can get their provision items.
Anyone can we part of this plan by helping peoples.
You can start your on center by investing one lakh rupees and a space where
you can store and distributes the items.
You will earn 15-20k per month. Even you will get 50 paise per kg. On the items that you sale
We, India fire welfare foundation believe in growth. We want to help people by making them independent. We will help government to fight against inflation & unemployment by “Rahat”. We will solving these matters that mention above. Our moto is to serve people, By the people.
The amount you need to invest for the agency is 1, 00,000 you need a space where you can distribute & store items 700 will earn 15,000 per month and 50 paise commission on what you say.
The items from that you need to sale first our Flour.
Note: - These rates are subject to change according to market rate